What physical flows (goods and infrastructure) and intangible flows (knowledge and information) result from partnership relationships? Twin or twin cities are a form of legal or social convention between cities, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states and even countries located in geographically and politically different areas, in order to promote cultural and commercial ties.  The modern concept of twinning, conceived after world War II in 1947, was designed to promote friendship and understanding between different cultures and between former enemies as an act of peace and reconciliation and to promote trade and tourism.  In the 2000s, twinning of cities was increasingly used to establish strategic international trade relations between member cities.   3The purpose of this paper is to speculate on partnership exchange programmes in the context of international human mobility. The paper addresses three main themes: (1) The role of different factors in the creation and improvement of trade; (2) barriers to trade; (3) The material and immaterial results of the exchange. On the other hand, it is interesting to see whether the development of twinning cities with Polish municipalities is due to human mobility and only improves existing connections or if they actually form. 38The highest level of real cooperation effects is characteristic of partnerships with Western European countries. Their share in real trade is much higher than the share of the total number of agreements notified. The best results in cooperation have been achieved in the area of exchange and exchange of people in partnerships with the German, Dutch, French and Danish municipalities.
Trade in people is bilateral, whereas the flow of goods has so far been dominated by the direction of advanced countries to Poland. It is typical of most twinning cities between partners in developing and industrialized countries (Laurent 1991; Schep et al. 1995; Hewitt 2000). Assistance from local Polish communities to their foreign partners is limited to administrative units in Eastern Europe inhabited by a Polish minority and individual rescue missions organised to help partners in neighbouring countries cope with natural disasters (for example. B Czech municipalities after the 2002 floods). 26The “Other” category was most frequently mentioned by the municipalities of the border regions, which stressed the geographical proximity, the need to establish new border crossing points, the resolution of the environmental problems of the common functional area or the territorial development of areas divided by the national border. The activity of Polish immigrants and Polish minorities abroad, as well as foreign minorities in Poland, played the least important role in the creation of partnerships. Both groups were more important for inter-regional cooperation.
Commercial contacts were more frequent in border contacts, but in general they did not have much importance in establishing partnership contacts. The twinning of cities is not a new concept for human society. For years, there have been partnerships that date back to Europe in the second century. These links were limited to cities and municipalities (local authorities) in the early years. Since then, links have been established between schools, churches, libraries, port authorities, airports, radio and television stations, postal services and other local authorities, and charities, regional, regional and provincial governments. Twinning agreements are legal or social agreements between two cities to promote trade and tourism. Institutions, organizations and governments at the second and third levels are committed to participating in joint exchanges and activities to enrich partners.